Long distance runners are more affected by black fingernail.
This disorder is called with several nicknames: ‘ black ‘, ‘runner claw’, although the technical name is Subungual hematoma. It’s a hematoma or accumulation of blood under the nail, i.e. a bruise of a lifetime but located under the nail.
This phenomenon may be due primarily to two causes, a strong direct impact, or repetitive microtrauma. In the first case, the injury mechanism is clear, a blow of entity such as the fall of an object heavy on its causes instantaneous leakage (blackening), throbbing pain, and inflammation. To avoid this type of injury is enough to try to turn the foot until the accident. In the second case, the injury mechanism is slower and thorny. A repetitive gesture that will see committed the last phalanx of the finger, place where it is located, can lead to this type of injury.
Causes of a runner, who does it affect?
Long distance runners, for example, submit your feet to a marathon series of footprints, or what is, in the small impacts that his fingers must absorb. These microimpactos make sure the mass of soft tissue that sits in the yolk of the fingers is compressed between two hard surfaces: the shoe below and the above template. If you squeeze the finger against a table with force as if you pulsaras a button, you will see how the fingertip soft tissue compresses and expands to the sides, but not upward because impedes the nail, and it changes color because of the pressure that is putting from inside. This phenomenon applied in the toes for thousands of footsteps may lead to the well-known black nail.
Despite being almost like a medal for bottom runners, this lesion is not unique to this Guild. Players, without going any further, hit the ball many times, causing those micro repeated trauma to which we referred to before. This effect is emphasized if the strike of the ball with the toe of the boot. To this is added, moreover, that football boots do not have good cushioning in the metatarsal area, since it is basically a rigid plate with tacos. Which leads to another majority cause of the black, the use of inappropriate footwear.
Therefore, you don’t need to travel hundreds of kilometers to see how darkens a fingernail; shoes that compress the toes, or the very closed-toe, contributing to the emergence of this lesion.
Other causes or predisposing factors of the fingernail or ‘finger of the corridor’ are sports with bottom, downhill slope. When we run downhill, the tip of the foot is which supports all the pressure, and is the tip of the fingers which is compressed against the shoe. The same result occurs in the feet of skiers, since it is a sport based on the constant decline for tracks with much slope in which all body weight rests on the tip of your fingers. Sports of braking as tennis, skating or hockey cause that same compression as harmful. Not saying that in disciplines such as ballet, in which whole body resting on the tips of toes on a WAD of pressed material at the tip of the shoe, is the culmination of black nails.
Hematoma color ranges from a light yellowish tone to the black more dark.
As a physical symptom of black nail more appreciable, by its chromatic variety, is the hematoma. The fork of colors spans from a light yellowish tone to black more dark. Sometimes the spill is bluish, in others, the Crimson red color of blood is most evident. A measure that the clot forms are created different pigmentations, denoting no more serious; It is subjective. We all know those people that your body reacts with a cardinal who last week, while just a redness goes out to others when they receive a severe blow to a slight pressure on the skin.
Another obvious symptom is pain, which is often pulsatile, i.e., giving the feeling of that late as if it were a heart by normal general. As the lesion progresses this pain is constant and deaf.
Black nail is not forecasting or severe evolution, but yes very annoying and in some cases disabling by the inability to support the foot. It is a disorder that is very easy to diagnose because guided physical evidence (type of sport, hematoma, localized pain, etc.) make it very striking. However, you can you have a dermatoscopico test to ensure the diagnosis and ruled out the possibility of melanoma.
Types of foot
It would be interesting in this section to make a brief reference to the type of foot. In some people the black nail always affects your first finger, thumb, while in others, on the other hand, appears in the second toe. This is due to the morphological foot type and the length of the first finger on the second. There are three big distinctions, which are called Egyptian foot, foot Greek and Roman foot.
- Egyptian foot: the first finger, the thumb, is longer than the second. It is the most common foot.
- Greek foot: the first finger is shorter than the second. Approximately one in every three people has this type of foot.
- Roman foot: the first and second finger are the same length. Only a small percentage of the population has this type of foot.
If shoes are too narrow they compress the toes and generate friction, and conducive to the emergence of black nail.
In case of finding us a black fingernail, the first thing we must take into account is the factor time. If the hematoma does not take more than 48 hours and the body has not begun it to reabsorb, we can evacuate and drain that blood collection. The technique involves making a small incision on the nail with the help of a needle or PIN previously heated red hot. This needle will pierce the foil to make a hole which will drain the accumulated blood. Once this easy and virtually painless maneuver relief will be immediate, as will release all pressure exercised by the fluid in the area. If you expect too much, or fear to not dare with this technique that could be disturbing to some a priori, the eventually rid herself within time. This will happen because the nail is recessed until fall. In any case, we must bear in mind that the nails of the feet are growing relatively slowly, and can take up to a year to regenerate.
Tips to prevent the Black Claw
There is an absolute preventive system against the black fingernail, and many athletes accept this lesion as part of their discipline and they have learned to live with it as a collateral damage more associated to physical effort. However, these tips will help you avoid a premature or at least steady appearance:
Personal care: one of the best ways to prevent the black nail is to keep nails trimmed. You don’t need to obsess and cut them in excess, with hurry them flush with the finger is more than enough, and always in a cut straight.
Socks: is essential to adapt the type of sock to each sport in particular, avoiding the big seam, or seams in places overlapped, for sports of long duration or requiring excessive use of the area of the fingers.
Footwear: most notable in the fight against black nails resides in footwear. It is necessary to select a shoe that is suitable for every type of foot. A very narrow shoe compress the area of fingers generating unnecessary friction and fostering the emergence of the black. The best way to choose the footwear is measured the foot from more back of the heel to the tip of the most distal finger (as already explained, will vary between an Egyptian, Greek or Roman foot). This measure must add half a centimeter to relieve pressure at the tip of your fingers. In the size of a shoe you can find European action (US), English (UK), Americans (USA), and by mm (JP), which is the one used in Japan. With this last it is easier to calculate, but to get an idea of the relationship of size, we can speak of the following reference: A foot of 285 mm, i.e. 285 (JP), is equivalent to a size 43 (EU), 9.5 (US) and 8.5 (UK). You must also take into account the useful life of a shoe is about nine months, and from that Strip would be suitable to replace them. This figure is calculated for a practitioner of running out three days a week for 45´ per session, or what is the same thing, 1000 km.
It is also important to the type of loop used for tying shoelaces. The best way to tie shoes to avoid the black nail is crossing the cord that goes up from the slot closest to the thumb until the last top eyelet on the opposite side. The rest of lace is tied side by side through button holes in ascending order. With this system, the area of fabric that is left on your thumb, easing the friction and pressure on this area will rise to tie the knot, pulling.
Hide the injury: last, and detail merely aesthetic, some athletes, mainly women, concealing such injuries using Nail Polish black on all nails and, thus, disguise the unpleasant vision of a bruised when it comes to go to places such as beaches, swimming pools, changing rooms, or social events in which sandals are used.