Swimming is one of the sports that can help older persons to control the risk of osteoporosis.
The World Health Organization (who) define osteoporosis as a systemic disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, leading to a greater bone weakness and an increase in the risk of fractures.
Osteoporosis is a very common disease. It has been one of the most important health problems in recent years by the consequences which, primarily bone fractures. Three million people have it in Spain, of which the highest percentage occurs in women.
The most common types of osteoporosis are:
- Type I or osteoporosis associated with menopause.
- Type II, that which is associated with age, affecting people over the age of 70, with highest percentage in women.
Fractures are produced by the fragility that presents the bones, including vertebrae, hip and forearm. One of the reasons for having become a serious public health problem is by physical disability and health annual cost involved.
Risk factors for osteoporosis
Osteoporosis, is disease can get it any individual, but there are a few important risk factors, among them:
- Persons of advanced age.
- Diet poor in calcium.
- Women, especially after menopause.
- A family history.
- Prolonged treatments of medications such as steroids, thyroid hormones, etc.
- The excess of tobacco, alcohol or coffee.
Postural re-education is useful for controlling osteoporosis.
It is important not to ignore the physical risks, and take appropriate measures to reduce the loss of bone mineral, thus avoiding possible fractures.
As measures for the prevention of osteoporosis are:
- A diet rich in calcium: highlighting the dairy, blue fish and nuts. Calcium needs will depend on each individual.
- Prevent fractures taking precaution in daily life, avoid jerking or shock over, in addition to maintaining proper posture.
- Physical exercise. There are exercises recommended for osteoporosis, but without forgetting to study each person in particular to adapt physical activity to the conditions of each patient.
Correct positions to prevent osteoporosis
During the day we carry out many activities, by taking positions that can lead to the emergence of certain aches and muscle spasms. It must be maintained positions correct when you lie down or stand up, to sit, to be standing or at the time of moving objects.
Here are some recommendations to keep a good posture habits.
- Lifting the soil by bending the body by the hips and knees, and not down to the ground the lumbar.
- When the object is located above head height, you must step on a Chair or ladder to get it, thus having the object at chest height.
- To move objects from one side towards other must hold them with both hands, knowing that it is best to tow or move a heavy object that wear it over the body.
Tips on exercise in people with osteoporosis
- Avoid sudden movements, strong racing or other very energetic.
- Postural re-education, care should be taken to maintain proper posture, especially if the illness is in an advanced state.
- Not realize hiperflexiones of column and avoid overload.
- Movements of extension and stretching to encourage mobility joint column.
- Walking, swimming, bicycling, etc.
Aerobic activities are recommended in patients with osteoporosis as cycling.
People with osteoporosis have a level of reduced bone mass continues to decrease gradually, causing bone weakness, making it fragile and susceptible to fractures. When these people perform a physical activity often accompanied other treatments (hormonal, with medication, etc) is checked that it reduces the loss of bone mass, and improvement to level neuromuscular coordination, balance and reflexes before the risk of falls.
These people have a physical condition below average, due to the decrease in mobility, therefore a good program of physical exercise with low intensity, at least at the beginning is advisable.
The recommended program should include aerobic activities like swimming, walking, cycling, and of force, always taking into account the conditions of each person.
It should take account of exercises that work the greater number of areas of the body, so that only a part of the body work. It should be noted the extensor muscles.
It should be utmost care with people who have very established disease, to avoid previous column Flex (bend).
Also to persons who have suffered multiple fractures or severe loss of bone advised them exercises such as swimming, walking through water or exercises in a Chair, improving muscle strength and balance.
Exercises recommended in osteoporosis
Some of the exercises recommended by the Spanish Association against Osteoporosis are:
- Leaning on the back of a Chair, partially Flex the knees, keeping your back straight. Up and down slowly.
- Against the wall with your knees slightly bent, push with your hands, keeping your back straight.
- With their hands on the nape, inspire deeply while elbows back are gentle. Exhale while returned to the initial position.
- Same as above, but with your elbows at waist height.
Exercise lying face-up
- Stretch an arm back and press onto the plane of the floor. Do it with the other alternately.
- On a firm surface and always starting that whole column (cervical, dorsal and lumbar) is supported in it.
- Extend and Flex the legs Alternately, without lower back ground.
It is advisable to conduct an assessment upon, under the supervision of the doctor who will advise the type, frequency and intensity of physical activity, since it must conform to the need of each individual depending on the extent of the disease.