Physical exercise improves the metabolic control, which especially helps diabetic patients.
Exercise always has been included in the recommendations to people with diabetes because of its beneficial effects shown for its management; in fact, it is currently one of the pillars of the treatment for diabetes.
Physical exercise improves the metabolic control in our body and avoid medical complications, by different mechanisms:
- Controls blood sugar. When performing physical exercise increases energy expenditure of muscle mass, body that disperses and redistributes excess of glucose present in the blood and consume it. In this way decreases blood glucose in the blood.
- It decreases body weight. The decrease in body weight, especially the decrease in visceral fat, increases the availability of insulin. Insulin has some affinity for fat and, therefore, is deposited there. To decrease body fat, insulin may be present in the blood, where it can perform their function.
- It activates metabolism. The increase in body metabolism through the exercise produces a reactivation of all organs. The pancreas can then increase the production and release of insulin in the blood.
- Take care of your heart. To perform physical exercise cardiovascular diseases, avoided the most frequently presented in the sedentary diabetic complication. This is avoided because physical exercise helps to reduce the vessels atheromatous plaque, improves the quality of the blood vessel by reducing the premature oxidation of the cells, and strengthens the heart muscle.
In addition, it not only helps people who suffer from diabetes, but it helps prevent the development of this disease. The relationship between physical activity and the possible prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus is based on that the abandonment of lifestyles with greater physical activity has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of diabetes.
Contraindications of exercise in diabetes
Physical exercise is contraindicated where the diabetic person not submitted adequate control of their blood sugar. It is considered that a patient is runnig when presents 200 mg/dL blood glucose levels, either in fasting, or after two hours of eating.
It is not recommended that diabetics perform high risk, like mountaineering, rock climbing or extreme sports or surfing, since in them occurs a greater demand of glucose during activity and could arise more frequently hypoglycemia post exercise.
Late post-exercise Hypoglycemia occurs approximately four hours after high-intensity exercise. It occurs usually during the night due to a consumption of glucose greater than the production of glucose in blood.
Certain sports such as rock climbing, paragliding, parachuting, rafting, diving, nor are advisable for diabetics on the chances of an accident, but if disease is well controlled, and the individual is in good physical shape and your doctor considered it appropriate, can enjoy them, adopting the logical precautions, as always in company practice them.
Cycling is one of the most recommended aerobic exercise for people with diabetes.
To achieve the benefits referred to in the preceding paragraph, physical activity should be done on a regular basis. It is safe for people with diabetes make exercise for 30 continuous minutes, once a day, at least three days per week.
The most suitable for a diabetic all types of physical activities are aerobic exercise, the exercise of resistance (weight) and Flex exercise.
It occurs at low to moderate intensity and is long lasting. It is that uses large muscles, such as the legs and arms groups, without the use of weight and in a rhythmic manner. It is the exercise better known as cardiovascular, since our heart and lungs can be supplemented to our muscles of all nutrients and oxygen necessary to carry out this activity.
As most recommended aerobic exercise for people with diabetes, we have:
- He moved to brisk.
The resistance exercise
Uses the strength of certain muscles to move a counter weight. This exercise usually requires more nutrients and oxygen so that the muscles can make it to what our heart and lungs can contribute. For this reason it is an anaerobic exercise and produces the typical aches. If and when there is no medical contraindication, it should be done with certain weight that is viable to strengthen muscle.
It is recommended to start with a weight of 2-3 kg and go up the weight used depending on the tolerance. A recovery period of at least 48 hours is recommended for each muscle group. Exercises of strength most recommended are:
- Back (dorsal).
- Arms (pectorals, deltoids, trapezoids, biceps and triceps).
- Legs (glutes, quadriceps, biceps femoris and twins).
It focuses on muscle stretch and each joint travel. People with diabetes are more likely to wear to joint, muscle tears, and tendon injury, since excess sugar in the body degenerates cells in a more precocious manner. For this reason, before and after physical exercise is very important flexibilizing exercises.
He is recommended as Flex exercise to a stretching program that includes the body as a whole: the column, legs and arms. In addition, other activities with a playful touch that focuses on body stretching are yoga, Pilates, gymnastics or ballet.
There are some details of the exercise to keep in mind:
- When we speak of moderate intensity, it means that you must exercise strong enough as to be able to speak, but not to sing, during the activity.
- If you have been sedentary for a long time, my advice is to start staggered, first between 5y and 10 minutes, and gradually increase the pace and time for a better tolerance.
It is important to conduct a medical assessment before starting a program of more vigorous exercise to which it is accustomed. In people with higher levels of fitness are recommended sports such as cycling, trekking, Nordic walking, swimming, etc.
Glycemic self-control is very useful to assess the body’s reaction to exercise.
Carry out physical exercise or sport as part of the treatment of diabetes is a recommendation of your physician, but keep in mind some tips to do it safely:
- The training must include a phase of warmup and subsequent cooling, with low intensity for 5 to 10 minutes exercise.
- Glycemic self-control is very useful to assess the body’s reaction to exercise. Blood glucose should be taken before, during and after exercise. It should not continue the exercise if you submit a capillary blood glucose below 100 mg/dL or above 200 mg/dL. Also you must take blood glucose passes a few hours after the exercise, at least until you get used to the exercise.
- Maintain adequate hydration. You must take at least 500 ml of water two hours before physical activity, and replenish fluids at the end of the year.
- For patients who tend to hypoglycemia (< 100 mg/dL) during or after exercise there are different strategies, although you will have to refer to them previously with your doctor: adjusting insulin or oral hypoglycemic, consume a portion of carbohydrate before you exercise, or both combined strategies. As extra carbohydrate portion we recommend: a cookie, portion of bread, rice or pasta.
- Adapt the exercise to control blood sugar: is suitable to do so always at the same time, avoid it if you just manage insulin, and exercising at the time of the day that you have high blood sugar levels.
- Foot care. You must use a sports footwear appropriate to the physical activity that you are going to make and you will have to watch rather than there are no wounds on the feet. It is convenient to check your feet carefully before and after physical exercise
- Do not inject insulin in muscle areas used during the exercise.
- If you have diabetes, you never practice physical exercise alone if you were to have lowered blood sugar, and always should bring some food with sugar, if anything.